Boys’ Club

Female big-wave surfers are scarce. Are there good reasons for that?

| posted on October 29, 2013

Maui’s Paige Alms, holding her own during an all-star paddle session at Jaws. Photo: Aeder

Maya Gabeira nearly drowned on Oct. 29 at Nazaré in Portugal. This reopened the conversation about female big-wave surfers out in the lineup. The following article originally appeared in our June Issue.

You can count the number of legitimate female big-wave surfers on your fingers. But, despite their scarcity, we very rarely ask the question: Why don’t women want to surf big waves? Or maybe more honestly, why can’t women surf big waves?

At first glance the answer seems obvious: There are simply less female surfers, and hence even less who want to take it to that next level. But there’s more to it than that. There are essentially two motivations for surfing giant waves, which certainly aren’t mutually exclusive. The first is internal: that desire for an adrenaline rush, the excitement of conquering something that’s literally massive, the pure pleasure of riding a towering wall of water. The other is external, and perhaps practical: for many surfers with budding (or failing) pro surf careers, the big-wave arena offers a way to reinvent themselves or demonstrate value to prospective sponsors. For those on the chopping block, a massive, well-documented ride could warrant a new contract. And with the mainstream appeal of big-wave surfing, companies can justify paying good money to surfers willing to throw themselves into waves that have the potential to make national news.

Sure they’re dancing with death to be marketing instruments, but for those who are physically and mentally prepared, the big-wave realm offers rewards that are, arguably, worth the risk. On the girls side of the game, however, where the opportunity for a lucrative career in big-wave surfing is hard to come by, it’s no wonder that only a few women are willing to leap over the edge of waves that could kill them just to earn a paycheck. “Men can actually make a good living in big-wave surfing,” says Keala Kennelly, “but on the women’s side of the sport there is almost no money. Who in their right mind would want to have a job where you make no money and there is a chance you could be killed while doing it?”

Which leaves the other motivator: Pure, impassioned desire. The fact that so few women possess this particular desire is partly physiological. Studies have revealed that men are far more likely to possess the unique brain and body chemistry that draws them to extreme sports like big-wave surfing—testosterone courses through their veins, neurotransmitters spew pleasure with the completion of every monumental feat. Women are physiologically more risk-averse. On average men produce ten times more testosterone (a hormone linked to risk-taking, among other things) than women. And when faced with challenging situations, men have been found to have increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex, which is directly associated with a fight-or-flight response and the release of adrenaline. By contrast, women are more likely to see increased activity in the limbic system, which is associated with more negative emotional reactions. Women simply don’t have the same chemical reward for confronting risky situations. Of course, there are exceptions. Every man does not live on the edge of extremity; every woman doesn’t cower in the secure lap of safety. But as a whole, the biological differences between the sexes are undeniable.

“There’s this ‘motherly instinct’ of being sensible and not putting ourselves in dangerous situations,” says Maui’s Paige Alms. Fellow big-wave surfer Maya Gabeira agrees: “I think it’s in the nature of women to be more reasonable and cautious of the risks and consequences of their actions. It’s normal to have fewer women in high-adrenaline sports. Boys act more instinctively when faced with fear.”

But unlike other extreme sports—like, say, racecar driving or heli-skiing or BASE jumping—there’s also a very real physical barrier for women as the size of the surf increases. The challenge, therefore, is not only a mental one—requiring incredible drive, and, for lack of a better word, balls—but one that requires a level of strength that most women simply don’t possess.

Savannah Shaughnessy

Savannah Shaughnessy, one of the few females gracing the Mavericks lineup each season. Photo: Brooks

A recent study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research looked at the performance difference between male and female as it pertains to surfing and found that women are at a significant disadvantage in regards to peak performance. The study pointed out that men commonly have longer limbs, which allows them to produce more torque through a given movement, which allows them to create greater velocity when paddling. Ultimately, it concluded that women “are not physiologically capable of performing some explosive movements equal to their male counterparts even in a relative manner” and that “even relative to body weight, men still have the advantage over women.” And this study didn’t consider the strength required for big-wave paddle surfing.

“Certainly when you’re getting into the realm of 50- to 60-foot waves, it’s incredibly physically demanding and the level of fitness that the top guys have gone to in the last few years blows my mind,” says Bill Sharp, founder of the XXL Awards. “I don’t know that all the women have paced that. But in addition to the physical thing there’s also the mental or almost chemical issue. Men are more geared for the incredible, terrorizing situations.”

Alms, however, doesn’t believe that’s all there is to it. “Yes, most men are stronger than women,” says Alms, “but I don’t think the reason why big-wave surfers do what they do is because they are strong. Strength is definitely important, but it’s not only physical. To put your head down and dig hard for a 20-footer, you have to be mentally strong and committed to knowing you are capable of doing it.”

And for the elite surfers currently pushing the limits, personal drive and mental strength are bolstered by something greater: the support of a group of like-minded surfers who not only instill confidence, but also the will to beat the rest to the top.

Savannah Shaughnessy, one of the few female surfers consistently in the lineup at Mavericks, believes that this is the real reason behind the lack of growth on the women’s side. “There are so few of us and we are pretty spread out,” she says, “so there’s less competition between us and because we are so few and far between, the women are missing the kind of mentorships and camaraderie that is formed on the men’s side.”

“I think the difficulties of logistics and safety makes it harder for aspiring females,” agrees Gabeira. “You need the support and people more experienced than you to get a start, and it happens to be that all of those things are mostly—if not only—found in the male community. So it makes it harder for us to practice and pursue it.”

The men at the top form a fraternity born out of their shared fortune, who converge around the planet each time the swell charts turn purple. “Without the budget to chase more swells, it’ll be hard for women’s big-wave surfing to close the gap on the men,” says Alms, “but I don’t think the reason there are less women surfing big waves is due to the fact that we aren’t getting paid to do it. I think if more women loved doing it, they would be doing it regardless of if it were a job or not.”

  • Cori Schu

    Janna, are you using the 2010 study in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning that discusses differences between males and females in the “pop-up phase” of surfing for this?

  • Mark J. Goluskin

    Well this certainly NOT politically correct but I’m afraid its true. While I do believe there are some great women big wave surfers, there is the undeniable fact that as a group men have the want more than women. Pointing out facts does not mean women cannot nor should not be big wave surfers. Good article.

  • antonio

    Girls, don’t listen to this. lf you wanna ride big waves go do it. Period.

    • sam

      What about their periods? don’t mention that.. geez

  • Erica

    As a woman and not a particularly feminist one, I was prepared to be offended. This article is well written, objective and balanced. It offers a fair and scientifically founded theory regarding the lack of females in big wave surfing.

    • yup

      As a man, I wasn’t prepared to be offended for women and I WAS!

      Despite some good points, this is irrelevant because any and all good points can be said about men from different contexts.

      “The challenge, therefore, is not only a mental one—requiring incredible drive, and, for lack of a better word, balls” The best word you’ve got for confidence is the one that refers to male genitalia…

    • Marcus

      Well said Erica. Women have amazing strength mentally and physically. They will always move forward and occupy the truth in which they build. It is always refreshing to put meaning to the question its self and be receptive to a genuine enquiry. Good to see your comment – viva la Girl Power

    • Cori Schu

      The “science” in this article has been generalized from a small sample of 40 people doing pop-ups in a gym to simulate the motion from prone to paddling. Claiming that this equates to the gender disparity in big wave, tow-in scenarios is quite a stretch. By this “science” the surfer to pop-up faster ought to be the best surfer in the water. There is a reason the actual study is not linked to in this article… and why only 1 scholarly work ever referenced this 2010 study.

      • Women&Waves

        I agree. What is more disturbing is this article was written by a woman. Its hard to believe women think other women shouldn’t be out doing things, and having rights to do what they can to succeed.

  • rick

    if the girls want to charge let them! but, remember it’s claimed the lives of some of our best athletes ever, all Men!

    • Stu Azole

      well, maybe they weren’t the best athletes ever then? Maybe the fact that Maya keeps cheating death makes here the best athlete ever? Hmm.

  • Matt Mason

    this is lame, and many guys have drowned surfing big waves, so I say ride on ladies

  • blackie rutherford

    Whoa! I’m trying to control my adrenaline rush of choler reading this. Likely due to my weak mental chemical makeup (sic). Balls, seriously? There are many women who are very, very strong mentally and physically and who have the mental toughness to pursue and succeed at extreme sports. It’s unfortunate that the women who surf these big waves don’t have the support of a group. I doubt the men are very supportive of them, either, nor the sponsors, certainly not the journalists! These women might think twice about competing in a sport that would not reward them with cash and kudos, but is that really why people surf big waves? I applaud these women who are trying to break the big glass wave and inspire other women and girls to reach higher, go further, test their limits. While we are not the same, women bring different strengths to the table. We need to respect their right to take the risk. I’m with Antonio and Rick here. Just go for it!

  • G

    It’s not putting women down, men and women ARE different, physiologically and psychologically. Maya Gabeira, a female big wave surfer, agrees with the author of this article who is also a women. There are biological differences between men and women and there’s no way around that.

  • Joe Crimo

    The only issue I have with Maya is she doesn’t seem like that great of an overall surfer, compared to say Kealla Kennely. Watching her small wave performance, its still at an intermediate level….but who am I to talk, I sux balls!

    • StcalKook

      the one who almost die in Chopes and had to rebuild her face?

  • Fabio Porto

    Acceptable you wonder about woman surfing big waves. safety, preparation and the things involved….but Maya desire is much more than the simple risk to die, its the pleasure to do it…Instead of accept the concept of surfing big waves is always a risk, incredible how the negative questions come first…Im glad we have such a warrior girl, and she is not American or Ozzy.But this is not the point isnt it….

  • erickMcG

    hahahaha… so the takeaway really is, guys are biochemically just stupid crazy enough to do such an amazingly insane thing.

  • Lorenza

    Good one. Ian Cairn remark was totally inappropriate.

  • Edgar Malveiro

    Sexism? No way. It’s just the same. But humans tend to be more protective towards women.

  • RP

    Usually women are not pioneers regarding extreme sports. Wingsuit, base jump, motorbike acrobatics, and many other extreme sports were developed and are dominated by men. Obviously some women could do it too, but in general they are just mentally and physically “genetically programmed”, so to speak, to do other stuff and not to spend time risking their life. Men that practice extreme sports like the extreme risk and the challenge of improving their abilities to near perfection, pushing the limits further and further into riskier activities. Money is usually not the main issue, because when a new extreme sport is born, men risk they life just for the adrenaline and fun. Also support and organization is not an issue, because if a dozen men can do it, one should expect that a group of women could also do it. After a few years, when a new extreme sport becomes more mainstream and safer (and also with more money involved), then we see some women also practicing it (and many times are the men that challenge women to do it). But whatever the extreme sport you consider, they are usually dominated by men.

  • Ron Laufer

    Maya & Brittany can teach many guys what guts means…..

  • Delz

    You just forgot one important aspect. They have to train hard..very hard. Maya survived because of her dedication, her life style, motivation and training with Carlos Burle. Girls can do it, but there is no free lunch, as the old saying goes…cheers

  • marknewton

    when your numbers up, it is up…male or female , it is that simple…

  • LirioJaguar

    Ok, so the physiological side has been explored in labs of grown men and women. There has not yet been a longitudinal study conducted, precisely because of sexual politics.
    Ethics boards may not authorise a similar study to be conducted on girl and boy surfers below the ages of 15. I would like to see a study of that, as our younger generations start to shed the expectations of them.
    In addition to this, boys are still conditioned to believe they are simply more capable of things than girls are. Most girls accept this and keep their ambitions relative to those which attract less critique. Girls are still being conditioned to ‘play it safe’. Of COURSE this will have an effect on how neural pathways show up in scans in later life!
    Men don’t go into surfing knowing they are pursuing something that is against the odds for their sex. Men go into most things taking for granted that they only bring skill and a willingness to increase that skill. Women go into many arenas in life knowing that they bring skill, a willingness to increase the skill, stereotypes to smash, the attitudes of men raised as entitled young boys to conquer, and low-expectations to be challenged.
    By the time women succeed in their chosen fields they have already navigated much more in the cerebral sphere than men will ever have to tackle, in addition to proving themselves, physically.
    So, to say that research shows men are more capable of big-wave surfing, or any other male-dominated feat is best described as being a result that is relevant to the here and now, and strongly influenced by cultural and social norms TO DATE. A study that purports to answer gender questions in isolation of other things that determine how people live their lives as a particular sex is very limited, and not a full, methodological study and should be taken in isolation. It is not prescriptive or able to be generalised to the future and merely serves to describe the state of being NOW.
    We used to think these things about firefighters, and female firefighters are being recruited in greater numbers, with the same barriers I listed above. Things are changing in that very macho sphere (with plenty of people, both men and women, keen to protect the imagery of firefighting as a male honour and pursuit). I know, because I’m involved in firefighting, as a female person 🙂

  • Pedro

    Parsons, as most big riders, would probably have died if caught in the circumstances Maya was caught in yesterday in Nazare, as she would have too if it wasn’t for
    Carlos, but the fight she put up for 5 interminable minutes was epic, worthy of
    the most prepared men in big wave surfing. In big wave surfing it’s not about
    sex, it’s all about training, physical preparation, mental attitude and luck that
    plays a big role too. Subtle sexism is the worst kind as it travesties itself
    as non sexism and tricks less informed minds.

  • Greg

    What about the male big wave surfers who have died? Everyone trying to show their big balls. Just wear a vest and carry a spare air and enjoy yourself without risking leaving your family behind with no way to support themselves. THAT is the stupid part of big wave surfing. Not women.

  • Tom Schick

    “C’mon N’ Ride it”, by Quad City Dj’s.

  • ThatDank

    Maya put herself in danger and almost died. Not only did she put herself in danger but she put others in danger as well and almost had her death as their guilt trip. Its simple science. Men are physically more capable of strenuous activities. Thats why daddies arent titty feeding and mommies arent building houses and mowing lawns. Maya wasnt ready, capable, or prepared for a swell of that magnitude and she should not have put herself out there and made her other people’s responsibility just because she wanted to prove something.

    Surfing those waves is very serious. Don’t try to prove something if youre not ready. Especially when youre putting yourself and others in danger.

  • CharlesHearn

    No one was saying nice guys shouldn’t ride big waves when Greg Long coughed up blood at Ghost Trees. She was out in the largest surf ever ridden at a beach break. She is in charge of what she does and we need to respect her by wishing her a speedy process back to where she clearly deserves to be!

  • a

    I thought there were a few interesting perspectives presented in this article however I disagree with Bill Sharp when he states Men are more geared for the incredible, terrorizing situations.”…has he ever been through labor?

    I extend my admiration to all women who ride waves…not just big ones either…

    Janna Irons I appreciate your writing however I would like to see more statistics favoring women..There were multiple references to men being stronger for example how you cited women “are not physiologically capable of performing some explosive movements equal to their male counterparts even in a relative manner” I believe there are better sources than the Journal of Strength and Conditioning (Have you noticed most of their writers are men?) So Ms. Irons may I suggest reading about the potential women have at

    Happy reading,

    • Stu Azole

      Annie – studies are pretty clear that men are more likely to engage in “risky” behavior. That doesn’t mean, however, that men are better at those activities than women who actually choose to engage as well.

  • Twig

    Its got nothing to do with being male or female but rather wether you are mentally and physically prepared and if you are able to surf at a good enough level to successfully ride waves like this. In my humble opinion Maya has the first two attributes in buckets but unfortunately not the third and that’s where her partners need to step in and guide her. Greg and I have had many a conversation about towing certain spots like Chopes and we have decided not to because our surfing is not good enough in that type of wave and we wouldn’t be giving ourselves a fair chance of making a wave. When it comes to life and death its very important to be honest with yourself about your capabilities.

    • Stu Azole

      Interesting. But she surfed the wave quite well. Does she need to work on her getting caught inside and being towed underwater skills?

  • Tom.

    First sentence of second paragraph: It should be, “there are simply fewer female surfers,” not “less female surfers.”

  • Susan Allyn

    Men, Get Over It!

  • glenn ford

    was not the wave it was her driver being to hurried he nearly drowned her by dragging behind the ski on the rope any one can get a broken ankle man or women surfing monsters

  • kacHewjson

    I thought the timing up republishing this, after Maya Gabeira getting drilled at Nazare turns a slightly pointless article into an offensive one. The “are there good reasons for [for women not surfing big waves]?” tagline kind of implies that she shouldn’t have been there. Bulls*&t, she’s hardcore and survived one of the wipeouts of the year on a mega swell. All the reasons in the article about why there aren’t a lot of female big wave riders are vaguely true, but given that Maya’s out there doing it, why time this now and imply that she shouldn’t be there? Good for her and well done for not dying

  • Jack

    Big wave surfing these days is beyond description and the athletes charging them are nothing short of amazing. As a confirmed small wave surfer I am in awe of all of them but have to say that the skill level, courage, and tenacity of the women surfers on tour and in the lineups at the biggest spots just blows me away. I can’t imagine what it took for them to push over the edge on their first 20+ foot wave.

  • Spedjones

    to suggest

  • Stu Azole

    fewer female surfers, not less. Did anyone at Surfer go to college?

    On topic, from what I saw, Maya actually rode her wave as well as any of the men. She didn’t get in trouble until after her wave was over and even then, it seemed like the ski assist did most of the damage. The discussion that women aren’t as physically capable as the men may be correct, but it doesn’t mean women are not capable of doing what the men are doing right now. To suggest otherwise assumes that men are operating at the human peak physically, which I don’t think is the case. In fact, if anything is keeping guys from going bigger it’s either a lack of technology or simple physics.

    In the end, being caught inside like Maya could kill anyone, male or female, so this whole discussion seems somewhat pointless.

  • Sam808

    Who cares if you’re male or female. Good for Maya for wanting to charge big waves, but someone is not always going to be there to save her life.

  • David F Puu

    Janna did a great job with this. She is a good voice. Women in athletics, and being competitive is nothing new. Not really. I think that it is sort of ludicrous (and predictable) for the sexist commentary to come spewing forth after this unfortunate series of fok ups at Nazare. It is the Ocean. Shit happens. You do your best to manage it, and plumbing has little to do with it so much as does preparation. Maya is as qualified as anyone to pursue her life goals in the Sea. Glad we have she and Carlos with us still. They both are pretty amazing human beings.

  • Mark Setzer

    I think it just comes down to training, yes guys are balanced more toward their shoulders and girls more towards the hips thus the difference in power that a female can generate but as with everything physiological between a man and woman the differences are small and precise and can be overcome to a certain extent depending on the females hormonal make-up. Anything you can do I can do better will always prevail well beyond nay saying.

  • 0ceansCJ

    I think this article has a lot of truth in it, from all parties. I am a professional deep sea diver, and although women can do it, there are only 2 in the world that ive ever heard doing it. Its a male dominated sport/career for most of the same reasons that are pointed out in this big wave article. Men are genetically geared and more likely to succeed at this. Its not a cheuvanism thing, it just a biological blueprint thing! #girlpower #freemind #ilovemywife

  • Jessica Trent PR

    #dumb. plenty of men have drowned or nearly drowned attempting to surf big waves. the biggest advantage the men have over females in surfing is cold hard **CASH and sponsor support!**

  • 2thedeepsky

    As a female, I’m slightly offended. Not very, because I understand the psychological differences, but still. We ladies can hold our own. As a fairly short girl, (5’0) I understand how people with longer limbs (especially men) have a greater advantage in stronger conditions. But let’s not forget that girls are more buoyant than men, and maybe we don’t do it for the money. Maybe we surf extreame waves because of sheer joy and love.

  • of Monkeys

    Another great article from Janna Irons.

  • Callie

    Sadly, this article was written by a woman. Beyond that, as an English teacher, I am appalled by the quality of writing in this article. Surfer mag, hire an editor.

  • Fred Hemmings

    Ignorance … should be the title of your poorly thought out essay.

  • Stephen R

    I’m from San Diego and averaged 2 days a week at Blacks last winter. I surfed a small to medium size day at Sunset last Wednesday. (Not small for me) It was 6ft Hawaiian with a few West sets and waves as big or bigger than any waves I saw all last winter at Blacks. There were handful of girls out but, two in particular that I have seen on a couple of big days (at Sunset) over the past couple of winters. These girls are young, beautiful, and they charge! They handle themselves and Sunset with a cool confidence. Thirty minutes into my surf one of the bigger West sets came through. Everyone appeared to be out of position, until I saw one of the young ladies whip her 9’6″ around and one stroke her way into the left. She grabbed rail as the lip threw over her and side slipped into oblivion, eventually surfacing 50 yards down stream after enduring the full force of that West peak. She came up smiling, to a chorus of hoots form the lineup. Everyone saw it and I believe that single effort, changed the mood in the water. The female surfers who are surfing the North Shore all winter, charge harder the 95% SURFERS in the world. I’m 51, have put in a couple of days out there and was inspired. Keep smiling girls.

  • concerned reader

    All I want to know is why aren’t these girls wearing a pink wetsuits? How am I supposed to know whos male and whos female!

  • ??

    So I’m 4’11 and about 100 lbs. Do you think it would be possible for me to surf big waves?Only I’m really small and not that good of a surfer yet.But I’m really really determined.

  • Kim Hamrock


  • Humawalu

    Just think it bears mentioning that the water safety considerations are being grossly neglected at these big wave “events” that are essentially sponsored by surf industry companies, such as Billabong. This is big wave surfing and it is for love AND money…how about using some water rescue safety basics like two operators on a water safety ski, and a team of paramedics on the beach, always…don’t tell me it isn’t cost effective either…these big wave riders travel from all over the globe to get to these waves. They don’t just show up and hey looky there its a 100 foot wave today. and lucky me to be here in the middle of somewhere with a jet ski and photographer to document my ride! ..who would have guessed? I am just saying…do it it right…if the safety basics are not in place but the photographers are, well, what does that tell you? Someone is not thinking very well at all.

  • Max

    I think Maya put up an awesome session at Nazare. Maya held her own on an epic swell with Carlos and Garrett – she was making her waves, taking off on sets, she was charging.

    As the danger only came when Maya broke her leg, it can be more of a safety issue. I agree with Greg that once its huge surf every rider should have the safety air vest and spared and each ski should have another team-mate to scan for injured surfers and make the pick-up when its really heavy or they are injured or its a KO – that way Carlos could focus on the ski, currents and surf that were crazy enough besides getting Maya to shore.

    Every life is precious so can the sponsors help them gear up better. I’m tipping Maya or Keala to make the XXL finals within 2 to 3 years. Go for it ladies!

  • Michael O’Connell

    If you cannot paddles into waves naturally then you don’t belong in them at all. I don’t care if you are male, female, or troglodyte. Machines are putting people in situations they could never paddle into on their own. Bad things happen when you don’t know your limitations. PEOPLE cannot paddle 35+ mph! Sex has nothing to do with being in over your head. If you cannot paddle out you don’t belong out there. If you can’t paddle into the wave you don’t belong out there. If you cannot get back to shore on you own you don’t belong out there. Simple really. People are cheating nature with machines but occasionally nature cheats them. You don’t surf big waves for the money! There is no money in that side of the sport really. You want to surf for money join the ASP circus and surf 2 foot Florida. Curiously all the big ASP stars don’t really big wave surf except Shane Dorian. Its a different sport. Pretty hard to get killed at trestles 4 foot. Mavericks,Cortes bank, Shipsterns,Todos, Jaws, or Teahupo’o’ (to sever the head) can kill you. Its been a funny year for big wave surfing. People use to just do it, no fanfare, and no out of the water drama. It was a secret cult in central cal for years. Nobody talked about it all. Now its all you here about. Kind of a switch. The ASP clowns were the drama queens for years. Now the Big wave Waterman and women are acting stupidly. Sad really I always thought of big wave surfers as above all the petty nonsense. Their side of the house used to be pure. Too bad.

  • cononsense

    The truth is, anyone can drown in 20ft+ surf, so if you want to ride it, the only thing you have to BE is PREPARED; and by that I mean a safety team, a plan and a jet ski. Exactly like Maya has done/does.

  • Ma

    the kind of thinking behind this article is so outdated, even the woman historian who wrote the book discrediting the victorian attitudes towards women, who attempted to scientifically “prove” women’s inferiority, just died.

  • Danny

    Hello to all you cute surfer boys! I’m a transvestite and can tell you that my surfing pre-op and post-op is virtually the same. The only difference is that nowadays I get more looks from hot young studs in the lineup!

  • Amy Schultz

    It all boils down to who can hold their breath the longest. The ocean will do everything to disorient you, flip you, and even try to tear your limbs apart, but your breath, that’s the only thing you can hold onto. I know Maya and other big wave surfers practice the art of free diving and breath holding to prepare physically and mentally. In Japan, the Ama divers are all women, who can supposedly hold their breath longer than men, freediving 30+ ft in order to collect abalone shells where they often encounter sharks. It’s not about gender, it’s about capability, calculation and above all else confidence.

  • Daniel Brennan

    Terrible journalism. The study cited does not make the claims Irons claims it does. The journal article only looks at strength in the ‘pop up’ and claims that women can train to overcome any gap between gender.